Among the many slimming diets based on reducing the caloric content of incoming food, there are those that rebuild the body, forcing it to intensively spend its reserves. The principle of such diets is not regular burning, but the forced breakdown of fat cells. The most famous of these is the ketogenic or keto diet.
What is the keto diet
The keto diet is a nutritional option when the body's carbohydrate intake is severely limited. The essence of the keto diet is that with this regimen, no glycogen is produced in the liver, but fatty acids. And their decay forms ketone bodies, which are a backup energy source. This is an ancient, indeed an emergency, mechanism that saves the organism in case of carbohydrate deficiency. In normal mode, the human body receives a large share of energy from carbohydrates, they are easier to convert into glucose, which is necessary to supply energy to the brain and body. In an emergency, fat reserves begin to be consumed intensively.
Types of keto diet
There are several types of keto diets. A person chooses his own, based on personal preferences: what goals he has, what result he wants to achieve and what opportunities are there for it. Basically, the following types are distinguished:
- Classic. This is the standard option, in which the incoming energy is distributed as follows: fats account for 75%, proteins - 20%, carbohydrates - the remaining 5%. The refusal of carbohydrates should be gradually increased. You can read more about this below.
- Turned. In it, the share of fat is 40%, and proteins and carbohydrates account for 30% respectively. As a rule, this option is observed in the transitional period.
- objective. This option is most often used by athletes or people who are intensely involved in sports. The principle is to consume carbohydrates immediately after training to replenish muscle glycogen stores.
- Cyclic. Alternating keto-carbohydrate diets to build muscle mass and "dry it" at the same time. Usually alternate 4 days of keto and 2 days of carbohydrate diet with one day of fasting.
- The keto diet is high in protein. Carbohydrates are still scarce, but some of the fat is slowed down by proteins. This option is suitable for those who want to save muscles or people who, due to problems with the gastrointestinal tract, have a reduced absorption of fats.
- In the vegetarian version, the source of protein and fat are plant products, otherwise it is the keto diet itself.
- Some nutritionists use the term "dirty" keto diet. This is true in cases where fats and proteins come from fast food and other unhealthy foods. But it cannot be called a complete diet.
Why you shouldn't count calories
All low-carb diets have the effect of automatically regulating appetite. When carbohydrates are not supplied to the body, the level of glucose (or ketones) in the blood remains stable and decreases only when it is necessary to replenish the body's energy supply. As a result, the body itself adapts to the conditions created for it. Barring the needs of the keto diet in terms of nutrient ratios, the required calorie content will add up on its own.
Important. If the goal of the keto diet is to increase muscle mass, calorie content still needs to be taken into account.
Principles of the ketone diet
The main principle of the keto diet is not to let yourself relax. The state in which the body uses ketones as energy cannot be maintained in the event of a breakdown. If you eat more carbohydrates, your body will respond immediately and come out of ketosis. Everything will have to start over. If you're not ready to stick to such a radical diet, you shouldn't even start.
What is ketosis
Ketosis is a state where the body uses ketone bodies rather than the usual glucose as an energy source. You can also find a definition as a metabolic state. It is the activation of this body system that is the goal of the keto diet.
How to get into ketosis
To achieve the metabolic state of the body, certain rules must be observed. The body must have time to adapt, so everything should be gradual, without sharp changes in the diet.
- Change the total amount of carbohydrates consumed per day. Their number should tend to be 40-50 grams. Next, you should reduce it to 20 grams. Carbohydrates are consumed in the morning.
- Drinking clean water, at the rate of 3 liters or more per day, depends on the person's body weight.
- Meals should be 5 times a day, with a 3-4 hour break. The last - 3 hours before bedtime.
- Snacks are prohibited. Unplanned food intake increases blood sugar and insulin levels, which nullifies the effort.
- It is advisable to limit salt intake so as not to overload the kidneys.
- During the diet it is advisable to dedicate at least 30-40 minutes a day to physical activity, this will help speed up the weight loss process.
If a person does everything right, then entry into ketosis will be done in stages, as the body gets used to the keto diet.
Signs of ketosis
There are signs showing successful entry. At some point the body adapts, realizes that there will be no more carbohydrate intake and begins the restructuring process. Its onset can be understood by the presence of clear signs.
One of the first signs that the accelerated metabolism process has started in the body. It is necessary not to forget about the abundant consumption of clean water. If this condition is troubling, it is worth adding a little salt to the water you drink throughout the day.
It is also a hallmark that the body has entered keto mode. The results of the breakdown of ketone bodies - acetates - are excreted from the body with urine. This is especially true for those who are just starting to go into a state of ketosis as the body adjusts to the new regimen. Again, it is worth remembering the importance of the drinking regimen.
One of the positive aspects that indicate the successful restructuring of the body is a clear feeling of a surge of strength. As a rule, it manifests itself after a period of decline and weakness. The fact is that when the carbohydrate level is reduced, the body does not get enough glucose, and the ketones have not yet begun to break down. This leads to a feeling of weakness and lack of strength. When the liver starts producing fatty acids instead of glycogen, the incoming food begins to be completely absorbed, which causes a noticeable increase in energy levels.
Decreased appetite and hunger
This shows that the final stage of entry has begun. The body has completely adapted to the oncoming diet, there are no sharp spikes in insulin, and now the feeling of hunger occurs when it is really appropriate. The body's fat reserve is consumed constantly, this allows you to maintain a certain level of energy without feeling hungry. The transition to this state can take from 2-3 days to several weeks, depending on the characteristics of the body and the usual physical activity.
The appearance of the smell of acetone from the body and mouth
This is also possible on a keto diet. This is due to the removal of the breakdown products of ketone bodies. The human excretory system is not just the rectum and bladder. Through sweat and lungs, even unnecessary elements are brought out. If you are worried about fruity or acetone breath or sweat, you can add some carbohydrates to your diet. But, as a rule, this effect does not last long, up to several days, then everything returns to normal.
All of the above signs are normal and indicate the onset of the metabolic regime in the body. If, with all this, a person feels a sharp deterioration in well-being, it is recommended to start over and more smoothly reduce carbohydrates in the diet.
Possible side effects
A keto diet, even with regular entry, is a rather serious shock to the body. The human body adapts to any diet. But in some cases it can take a long time and be accompanied by unpleasant sensations.
This is the name of the set of signs that most resemble the symptoms of a viral disease. The more carbohydrates on the usual menu, the harder it will be to switch to a keto diet. The load on the liver, on the pancreas changes, even the bacteria that inhabit the intestine are forced to process other food. All these restructuring processes can be accompanied by some signs. The "keto flu" includes:
- Headache and slight confusion.
- Tiredness and frailty.
- Nausea and discomfort in the intestines.
To relieve these symptoms, it is recommended that you drink as much water as possible, you may need to take additional micronutrients. As a rule, this condition lasts 5-10 days and gradually disappears.
Seizures are most often associated with active urination and the leaching of electrolytes from the body. To avoid such a side effect, it is recommended to start taking additional magnesium and potassium immediately after starting the keto diet. It is recommended to use extended-release supplements, they will better help to cope with such an unpleasant condition. In case of very severe and painful cramps, it is possible to slightly increase the amount of carbohydrates in the diet, but this significantly slows down the achievement of the desired result.
If ketosis is a state where a person intentionally introduces the body with the help of a diet, ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication. This condition occurs when ketones are unable to enter the cell to provide energy. In the vast majority of cases, this is due to the level of insulin in the blood. Ketoacidosis is extremely rare in people who don't have diabetes. On the other hand, the onset of the disease can happen at any time, so there are some signs you need to watch out for.
- Nausea and vomit.
- Severe pain in the abdomen.
- Low blood pressure and high pulse.
If these symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a medical facility. Doctors should definitely tell you that you are on a carbohydrate-free diet. This will help quickly diagnose and perform a blood test for certain indicators - glucose, ketones and triglycerides.
This can also be due to a decrease in the amount of fluid in the body. The heart needs more effort to pump thickened blood. It may appear to be beating hard or too often. Diet and mineral intake will solve this problem within a couple of days. If nothing is done, symptoms can persist for 10-14 days. In a person without heart disease, this shouldn't cause concern.
A dangerous and unpleasant side effect that can occur if you do not follow the diet. At least three liters of clean water per day, and for a person of strong build, weighing above average, this figure should be higher. To correctly calculate the dose, there are some recommended parameters: about 40 ml of pure water per kilogram of weight, with a minimum of 3 liters. That is, a person weighing 80 kg must consume 3. 2 liters of water per day, 100 kg - 4 liters and 60 kg or less - 3 liters.
Constipation on the keto diet
Constipation can be related to two factors:
- Dehydration of the body.
- Lack of fiber due to carbohydrate restriction.
In the first case, it is necessary to adjust the amount of water in the direction of increase. The liquid is excreted not only in the urine, but a large amount is absorbed in the intestine. This leads to difficulties in peristalsis due to the compaction of the contents, and therefore to constipation.
In the second case, constipation occurs due to the fact that the usual diet has changed. As a rule, the main amount of fiber comes from carbohydrate foods. In this case, it is necessary to modify the diet so that the proportion of carbohydrates remains low, but non-starchy vegetables serve as a source. Eating vegetables, salads, zucchini or cucumbers will help.
Flax seeds, steamed with boiling water, will not add carbohydrates, but will calm the stomach and facilitate digestion.
Rapid metabolism and dehydration can lead to mineral loss. To restore the balance, it is desirable to include vegetables rich in these substances in the list of products. All kinds of kale, leafy lettuce, spinach and asparagus will help support the body. You can also use appropriate food supplements, which can be purchased at the pharmacy, so that micronutrient deficiencies do not affect your health.
Breath with the smell of overripe fruit or acetone indicates that the body is in ketosis. Also, such a problem is possible with dehydration or problems with digesting large amounts of proteins. If this problem does not go away in a week and worries despite the normal regimen of alcohol consumption and oral hygiene, it is worth increasing the carbohydrate intake to 50 grams per day. This will slow down your metabolism and delay weight loss results, but the odor issue won't be a problem.
Exacerbation of urolithiasis
This could be the body's reaction to excess protein in the diet. As meat consumption increases, including red meat, the overall acidity of the body increases. Also increased stress on the kidneys. To reduce these manifestations, it is recommended to reduce the consumption of red meat in favor of the white one and to try to eat foods that alkalize the urine. These are, for example, linseed and olive oils, as well as legumes.
Increase the level of bad cholesterol in the blood
This is a fairly rare effect, which, however, can cause a person to worry. The increase in bad cholesterol levels leads to the consumption of saturated fats, such as fatty meat, lard, butter. It is worth replacing them with unsaturated options: olive and linseed oils, nuts, fatty fish. With such a diet, the total cholesterol level can be quite high, but this is the good cholesterol, which is necessary for health, maintaining the elasticity of blood vessels and muscles, hormone levels and metabolism.
There is a simple way to roughly determine which product category a fat belongs to: if it remains solid at room temperature, is saturated, it is better not to use it.
Who doesn't follow the keto diet?
Like any nutrient cut, the keto diet has its specifics and limitations. Mostly they refer to health problems. Among the absolute contraindications:
- Fat malabsorption. Pancreatitis, liver failure - with such diseases, the keto diet will cause severe damage to the body.
- Kidney failure. A large load on the kidneys due to the protein diet will lead to difficulties in the work of these organs.
- Pregnancy or breastfeeding. The female body during this period works to the limit, you can not add additional stress, the consequences can be unpredictable.
In other cases of health problems, before starting such a strict diet, it is best to consult a doctor to determine if such a diet is right for you.
Ketogenic diet for diabetes
Separately, it is worth mentioning the possibility of a ketogenic diet in patients with diabetes. If a person with type 1 diabetes decides to start a ketogenic diet, it should be strictly controlled. Your doctor must give permission based on your medical knowledge and experience. Although in general a low carbohydrate intake contributes to a decrease in glycated hemoglobin, one should be aware of the possible complications in the form of ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia. In addition, weight loss forces you to review the insulin doses administered.
As for type II diabetes, the situation is slightly better. Studies have been conducted that examined the effect of the ketogenic diet on cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin in the blood. Overall, the majority of patients had positive outcomes. In summary, the benefits of the type II diabetes diet include:
- Alignment of the lipid profile. Good cholesterol replaces bad cholesterol, performance improves.
- Decreased insulin resistance. You need to take fewer antidiabetic drugs.
- Weight loss. One way or another, this has been observed in the vast majority of cases.
In the long run, it is not known whether this effect will last, but it is very difficult to maintain a ketogenic diet for long. But as a periodic discharge, it is very suitable.
List of recommended and prohibited products
When a person decides that a keto diet is right for him, the question of which foods to choose makes him think. If everything is more or less clear with proteins, then what to get carbohydrates and fats from is not always clear. To facilitate this task, below you can find a list of products divided into categories. They can be eaten alone, or home cooked various dishes.
There are foods that can be consumed almost without restrictions. These include:
- Meat and meat products.
- Chicken, turkey, duck.
- Fish, sea and river.
- Egg white.
- Green vegetables.
- Olives and olives.
Some products, in addition to proteins and fats, contain large amounts of carbohydrates, so they are not prohibited, but it is necessary to take into account the ratio of nutrients in order not to exceed the norm for carbohydrates. Below is a table of some permitted products, with an approximate composition per 100 grams.
|Milk 3, 2%||2. 9||3. 2||4. 7|
|Chicken egg||12. 8||11. 6||0. 8|
|Mozzarella cheese||22||22||2. 8|
|Sour cream 25%||2. 6||25||2. 5|
|Olives||0. 8||10. 7||6. 3|
For an easy calculation, use the calorie calculator. The calculator already has a large database of products, and many ready meals are also calculated.
All foods rich in carbohydrates are prohibited. First of all it is:
- Cereals and flour products.
- Baking, even unsweetened.
- Carbonated drinks.
- High starch vegetables.
Separately, it is worth noting low-fat dairy products. On a keto diet, fat is more important than protein. And such milk does not contain fat, but contains a large amount of lactose.
fruit on a ketogenic diet
Despite the sweetness, almost all fruits contain a low amount of carbohydrates, but a lot of water and dietary fiber, which are not counted in the net carbohydrate content. The table shows the most suitable fruits for the keto diet menu. Table based on 100 g.
|First name||Fat||Carbohydrates (total)|
|Raspberry||0, 5||8. 3|
|Watermelon||0. 1||5. 8|
|Melon||0. 3||7. 4|
Some fruits are strictly forbidden to buy and consume. These include:
- A pineapple.
There are too many sugars in these fruits and, consequently, carbohydrates.
Keto diet menu for the week
The menu below for the week for women and men is the same. If necessary, it can be adjusted independently according to personal needs. In the keto diet, the menu is built according to certain principles, in which the main thing is not the calorie content, but the proportion of nutrients in the diet.
The optimal diet of the keto diet for a week looks like this:
- Breakfast - fried eggs.
- Lunch - cutlet with cheese.
- Snack - olives or black olives.
- Dinner - pork chop with spinach.
- Breakfast is an egg and milk omelette.
- Lunch - fish and vegetable salad.
- Snack - hard cheese.
- Dinner - grilled chicken.
- The breakfast is ricotta.
- Lunch - grilled turkey with rocket and spinach salad.
- Snack - avocado.
- Dinner: salmon with a side of green beans.
- Breakfast - boiled eggs.
- Lunch - white fish cutlets.
- Snack - fruit.
- Dinner - Greek salad.
- Breakfast - drink yogurt and peanuts.
- Lunch - pork steak and tomatoes.
- Snack - cheese.
- Dinner - cottage cheese.
- Breakfast is an omelette.
- Lunch - fried fatty fish.
- Snack - vegetable salad.
- Dinner: Chicken stewed in coconut milk.
- Breakfast: scrambled eggs with mushrooms.
- Lunch - roast beef.
- Snack: nuts, berries.
- Dinner - fried chicken.
Recipes for the keto diet
Despite the rigor of the keto diet, there are delicious recipes that follow all of its principles. They can also be cooked on a cyclical diet, when high and low carbohydrate intakes alternate.
Appetizing broccoli flan with cheese
The recipe is suitable for beginners, it suits both keto and regular meals. It is easy to prepare such a saucepan, the following ingredients are needed:
- Eggs - 2 pcs
- Broccoli - 200 gr.
- Hard cheese - 20 gr.
- Onion - 1 pc.
- Cream 10% - 50 ml.
- Butter - 20 gr.
Broccoli, disassembled into inflorescences, boil in boiling water for 15 minutes. While the cabbage is cooking, sauté the finely chopped onion in butter until golden brown. To the onion add the cooked broccoli, lightly fried all together. Then pour 2 beaten eggs into the pan, sprinkle with grated cheese and cook over low heat with the lid closed for 10-15 minutes.
Omelette with bacon, cheese and mushrooms
This recipe will also appeal not only to those who are losing weight due to a lack of carbohydrates. To prepare such a dish, you need to purchase the following components:
- Eggs - 2 pcs
- Hard cheese - 30 gr.
- Bacon or breast - 60 gr.
- Mushrooms - 100 gr.
- Olive oil - 2-3 tbsp.
First, sauté the mushrooms and bacon in olive oil. Then beat the eggs, mix with the grated cheese and pour the mixture into the pan. Fry on one side until cooked, turn, fry from the second.
Cream of cauliflower with chicken broth
This homemade diet soup with a delicate texture is keto-friendly and good for your stomach at the same time. To prepare it, you need:
- Cauliflower - 200 gr.
- Onion - 1 pc.
- Hard cheese - 50 gr.
- Cream with a fat content of 20% - 30 gr.
- Butter - 20 gr.
- Chicken broth - 150 gr.
Finely chop the onion and brown it in oil. Boil the cauliflower and chop it with a blender. Add the cabbage, cream, fried onions and grated cheese to the broth. Cook, stirring, 10 minutes.
Reviews of doctors about the keto diet
According to experts, the keto diet is very tough and has a number of serious contraindications. The essence of the restrictions is to lose weight or unload some organ. And keto, doctors say, overloads the body and puts it in a state of stress. Endocrinologists are categorically against such restrictions without serious medical reasons.
Some doctors believe that a week or two of such restrictions will only benefit, but you can't eat like that all the time. In any case, starting a keto diet should be under the supervision of a doctor.
The keto diet isn't for everyone. A person should be healthy, have no problems with fat absorption. This is not a magic pill that will help you lose weight and keep eating delicious fatty foods. This is quite a severe blow to the body, effectively forcing it into survival mode. Yes, the results are amazing, excess weight disappears quickly. On average, a woman of normal build can lose up to 5 kg in 10 days of keto. The question is how a particular organism will react to this. It is also difficult to repair the lost weight.
If you still decide on such strict restrictions, do not forget about medical supervision, diet and the fact that such a keto diet is not designed for a long time.